Last updated: 2017-12-11

Atlas Fontium
ISSN 2353-9216



The Court Records of Wschowa, 1495-1526 (working version)

ed. by M. Słoń, The Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences (The Atlas of Sources and Materials for the History of Old Poland, 2014- )

This publication proposes a new approach to the the method of editing historical sources. It does not contain a full reading of the manuscript, but at the same time it provides the user with complete text, and several tools – the result of the publishers' research work – which make using the manuscript much easier. The source itself and the results of our work are presented in three interconnected formats: tables, a GIS map and the records. The first table contains the list of entries together with basic information about them, and a full text of some of entries. The second table constitutes a joint index of geographical and personal names and other key terms. This is a working version; the complete version, is planned for the near future.

See edition of records

The Court Records (Acta castrensia) of Wschowa, 1495-1526: the origin and course of the project

The project was born on 20th March 2014, in the Department of Historical Atlas during a conversation about three Ph.D. theses to be written in our team. Each of the theses dealt with the district or archdeaconry of Kalisz (the borders of these two territorial units largely overlap) in the 15th – 16th century, and each required a source query of several thousand pages of court registers. Such tremendous amount of work would lack sense, if conducted for the purpose of only one study. We came to a conclusion it should be coupled with indexing of said sources. But that would require more people, and consequently: more funds. As such, it was decided we should submit three applications to the upcoming Preludium contest of the National Science Center (Narodowe Centrum Nauki, NCN). Eventually, it all became a large scholarly enterprise and required necessary preparations in several areas. A team of people interested in the work had to be gathered and the skills of its members had to be tested. Also, the very method of editing had to be designed and verified. We needed to balance between our intention of achieving the most complete result and the possible speed of carrying out the project that could only be measured in practice. Additionally, the result had to be presented in a way that would convince the NCN experts what we want to and can achieve. We had to work fast, as the deadline for applying was in less than three months.
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We decided it would be best to publish a register of a small territorial unit which would count less than 500 pages and cover the turn of the 15th/16th century, preferably from the voivodeship of Poznań – so as to benefit from advanced dictionary works and connect this task with our current project. Basing on these criteria, we chose the first court records of Wschowa Land. That day we shared our idea with Tomasz Jurek. What followed was a lively discussion about various aspects of the project and the very nature of source editing. On 26th March, we viewed and photographed the entire unit kept in the State Archives in Poznań, and also browsed through selected volumes of Kalisz records, as well as manuscript indexes of court registers. I have also discussed our plans with the director of the archives, Mr. Henryk Krystek. The following day I began looking for possible sources of funding for the project by the cities of the former land of Wschowa, including its capital. The next day, that is 28th March, it was decided that the indexing of court registers would be carried out in three stages, and that subsequent stages would depend on the result of the preceding stages and obtaining funds:

  • • 1. The town records of Wschowa, with the support of local governments,
  • • 2. Selected court registers of Kalisz Land: civil court registers (end of the 15th and end of the 16th century), and consistory records (beginning of the 16th century), in total around 20 000 pages, within the scope of the three Preludium grants.
  • • 3. Converting the court registers and surviving manuscript indexes from Greater and Lesser Poland (several thousand of index volumes for a series of several million manuscript pages) into a database and connecting it with the digital facsimile, with the funding under NPRH, a commissioned project, or from other source.
It took three weeks to gather our main team of 10 people. Finally, on 16th April, we could divide the work in following manner:
  • 1-20v Marek Słoń (Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences)
  • 21-40v Joanna Karczewska (University of Zielona Góra)
  • 41-60v Michał Gochna (Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences)
  • 61-80v Tomasz Związek (Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences)
  • 81-100v Michał Słomski (Warsaw University)
  • 101-120v Witold Brzeziński (Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz)
  • 121-140v Paweł Klint (Wrocław University)
  • 141-160v Arkadiusz Borek (Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences)
  • 161-180v Konrad Szuba (Warsaw)
  • 181-196 Emil Kalinowski (IH UW)

In the meantime we obtained scans of our manuscript and began indexing. Within a month, the first reading was ready and entered into spreadsheets. We have lost contact with an IT specialist from whom we ordered the application, and on 20th May we commissioned another specialist, Kristian Kann, with the task. At this stage, the project was presented four times: On 21th May in the Department of Medieval Studies in the Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, the next day during the M.A. seminar of prof. Maria Koczerska at the Institute of History (Warsaw University), and on 27th May in Wschowa and Leszno. As a result of the latter, we were promised a sum of PLN 10 000 from the mayor of Wschowa, the president of Leszno, and the head of Święciechowa municipality, i.e. three historical towns of Wschowa land. The working version of the indexing application was ready at the end of May, and after a week of tests, we could begin marking entries and key terms on the manuscript. In mid-June, thanks to the support of Bogumił Szady, we transferred our work from separate spreadsheets (one for each person) to one database. Applications for the financing of the edition of Kalisz court registers were also submitted at the time. On 15th July, we finished marking key terms on the manuscript facsimile. Hydrographic base was prepared by Tomasz Panecki (Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences) with the use of the settlement network already marked on the map by Catarina Seeger (Universität Würzburg). At the same time, members of our team were busy collecting excerpts from the registers, preparing a full-text reading of chosen entries, identifying individual scribes (J. Karczewska and W. Brzeziński), preparing introductory part about the sources (W. Brzeziński), and writing down the rules of editing determined in the course of our works (M. Słoń). This description was written on the same day, and Bogumił Szady (Catholic University of Lublin) adjusted the web-GIS application and put it on the internet site – the working version was made available in the "Atlas of Sources and Materials to the History of Old Poland".

The project is still not finished. We are still working on unifying the data entered into the database by various persons, as well as on the interface of the application. Thanks to the support of the Onomastics Department (Institute of the Polish Language, Polish Academy of Sciences) directed by Barbara Czopek-Kopciuch, we were provided by the correct spelling of personal names standardized according to the rules governing the language in the 16th century; these data have yet to be entered into the application.

The unfinished work was made accessible for several reasons. One of them was quite simple: so that the NCN experts could see what the new method of source editing looks like. However, what is more important is the belief that publishing historical sources is a process which is initiated, brought to a certain point, but not finished. We offer and open form of editing that invites users to join the process. This mainly concerns critical remarks, e.g. specific paleographic corrections, or errors in functionality, or any supplements, like a new group of key terms, German version of site names, etc. Therefore, we encourage others to submit their remarks through the application, or to contact the Department of the Historical Atlas directly. Positive comments can also prove valuable.

We plan to end our work on the Wschowa records still in 2014 The obstacle was the withdrawal of the city of Wschowa from the promise of financing the project. There have also been critical remarks of users, which convinced us to a new redaction of all Latin passages. This work was done by Urszula Zachara-Związek. In addition, in collaboration with Kristina Rabai, she supplemented the source commentary on codicological analysis. The revised version will be published on this site and in the Atlas Fontium section of the journal "Studia Geohistorica" before the International Conference of Historical Geographers (Warsaw, 15-20.07.2018).

Marek Słoń (IH PAN)

Rules of this edition

This publication proposes a new approach to the editing of historical sources. It does not contain a full reading of the manuscript, but at the same time it provides the user with complete text, and several tools – the result of the publishers' research work – which make using the manuscript much easier. Its main purpose is to test the said method of publishing, both from the point of view of the authors – to test the effectiveness of works, to find the qualifications and tools needed, and to predict the possible difficulties – and from the point of view of the users. Naturally, we leave this assessment to the users of our work. We would appreciate all feedback, both the most obvious comments, and the most critical ones. We can later use them to improve the existing edition, and – more importantly – improve our work on next similar projects. We realize we are entering a wholly new field here. Unlike in the traditional form, we are unable to utilize the achievements of former generations, or any tried and tested solutions. Travelling off the beaten track is inevitably connected with a great risk of losing one's way. Still, this is no justification for mistakes. The innovative nature of our publication forces us to provide a detailed explanation of the procedures we accepted and followed.

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There are three ways in which the contents of the source and the results of our work are presented: the tables, the GIS map, and the scans.

The two tables are the most important part. The first one depicts the internal structure of the register and contains the list of entries found inside. Information identifying each entry (the archives, file name, page and item number) were placed in separate columns and put together in yet another column to form an entry's identifier. Final page number, serial number in the register, date presented as it appears in the source, and the headline are listed separately. All these are supplemented with modern form of the date, identified scribe, additional remarks (e.g. that the entire text was crossed out), and the type of legal action, if it was not stated in the original headline. If another document provided with a different date is cited in a given entry, it was isolated as a separate item with the letter "a" at the end of the identifier. Although page numbers have later been marked with a pencil, we decided to use foliation, a method common in subject literature. The full text of selected entries was also included in the table. These were chosen so as to present various handwritings and various types of legal actions.

The second table contains the index. We singled out three types of headwords: geographical names, personal names, and other key terms. Surnames were listed in the form that appears in the source with additional information about the social class of the person. The letter "y" was interpreted in accordance with its phonetic value ("y", "ij", or "ii"), regardless of any dots above. The form, in which a given person appears for the first time in the entry was also given, without the headline. The form of the name was not declined into Nominative: transliteration documents the standardized version found in the next column (the one used for searching the data), and at the same time provides paleographic support. The most common terms denoting social status of a person were abbreviated, e.g. nob. – nobilis, gen. – generosus, d. dominus. Other data, like served offices, mentioned relatives, time of death (olim), were put into a separate column. The name and surname of the husband were provided next to the name of any woman mentioned in the manuscript only by name. In order to make it possible to search for particular persons, their names were also provided in standardized form based on modern orthography, subject literature and the instructions of the Onomastics Department of IJP PAN. The surname placed beside – in Nominative Singular Masculine – should help users find members of one family.

Geographic names were provided in the form in which they appear in the source, following the same rules that applied to surnames, and identified. The unique ID allows us to connect entries with the database of the settlement network in the 16th century Poland prepared in the Atlas Department of the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences. This enables the user to find a given settlement on the basis of the forms of its name already included in the database. Depending on the region, these could be: modern name, 16th century name and its variants, dictionary name (as found in the Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Polish Lands in the Middle Ages), and others. An index entry can be linked with the map by means of the identifier. Apart from settlements, the index lists also territorial units and physiographic objects, although not many of them appear in the register. However, "Wschowa" was not mentioned where it appears as the place where the court was held. Toponymic bynames, where they appear in place of a surname, were also omitted. However, whenever a person was mentioned as heir of a given village, this village was included in the geographical index.

The index of key terms includes utilitarian and sacral objects. Especially in case of the former, we tried to differentiate between the form and the real subject of the transaction. We omit general terms, like village, heirloom, or city. As such, ours is a very selective index, a foundation for a more complete list, which should with time be filled with data from various source queries of Wschowa register.

The identifier of an entry connects the index table with the list of entries, as well as with the application displaying manuscript scans.

Each index entry is placed in a separate verse (record) of the database. For example, if the sołectwo in Zbarzewo (f. 11v) was the subject of a transaction, then there would be two entries: key term (sołectwo), and geographic name (Zbarzewo). Similarly, several objects, even related to one settlement and situated next to each other, were placed in separate records.

The facsimile itself is not part of the edition, but the foundation on which it was constructed. Two layers were applied on the scans of the manuscript. The first one highlights subsequent entries. In order to simplify the form, these markings are one-dimensional, i.e. they always cover the entire width of a page, and are separated with horizontal lines. Because of this, the last, incomplete verse or headline of the subsequent entry may sometimes, partially at least, be incorrectly assigned. Still, the purpose of this layer is to show the internal structure of the entire records, so it should not make work any more difficult. Marked index entries constitute the second layer, applied on the first one. In case of persons, we marked name, byname and surname, in case of geographic objects: site name in noun or adjective form, in case of key terms – appropriate term from the source. The records often stretched to a new verse. In such case, we usually marked two rectangles. However, no additional markings were used when what remained in the second verse was only the ending of a record, obviously related to the previous verse. Each term appears only once for each entry in the tables, but the manuscript also shows repetitions. They refer the user to the same record in the database. This also applies to transliteration, and as a consequence, it may differ from what is shown on the manuscript.

All three elements – the facsimile operated by means of a special application, the GIS map, and the related tables in the database are interconnected, and each of them provides a direct link to the other two. The map, and especially the tables, allow the users to search and filter the indexes.

Our edition of the court records of Wschowa Land is an open project. We encourage users to contact the authors, so that our work could be corrected and enhanced.

Marek Słoń (IH PAN)

The Court Records of Wschowa (1495–1526): the sources

Acta castrensia (Civil court records), written down in Polish lands in late medieval and early modern period, are an extremely valuable source for research on the Polish society of the period. This mostly concerns nobility, but is also true for other social classes. The records offer a particularly useful insight into the law and judicial system of the period, ownership relations, as well as various aspects of economic life, family relations, relations between neighbours, and between social classes.

The abundance of information found in the records – still not fully utilised in historical research – is the result of the specific nature of the institution by which they were created. This was the starosta's court or iudicium capitanei (later iudicium castrense) , and later also the officium castrense (the office attached to the court), formed in the course of the transformation of the starosta's function. Most of the entries in the registers are connected with the activity of the iudicium and officium castrense. They also contain contracts and statements about finances and wealth, both temporary, and perpetual. Beginning with the 16th century, also because of the growing number of entries, particular series of entries were separated – on the basis of documented activity. However, the oldest registers do not have this division, all types of entries were made in one book. Only in the records of the starosta general of Greater Poland, perpetual transactions were singled out in a separate series from the very beginning (resignationes) [1].

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The oldest surviving acta castrensia come from Lesser Poland and central Poland (old voivodeships of Łęczyca and Sieradz), where they were written down already in the 1390s. In Greater Poland the oldest known surviving records are the records of the burgrave of Kalisz castle from 1418. Next in line are the records from Kościan and Nakło from 1432, and Poznań (1434) [2].

The acta castrensia from Wschowa dating back to the 15th and 16th century (no. Gr. 1) are the first surviving court registers from this area, but not the first created in Wschowa. A 1665 inventory known as Catalogus seu regestrum mentions earlier records, something – according to the scribe's own words – "resembling a little register". It contained entries from 1432-1512 [3]. In the surviving acta castrensia of Wschowa, in their current shape, the chronological scope of entries encompasses the period from 1495 to 1526 [4]. The records begin with the entry: Acta capitaneatus venerabilis domini Alberti Gorsky scolastici Wladislaslauiensis et cancellarii Poznaniensis ecclesiarum protunc capitanei wschouensis super anno domini 1495 per me uero Martinum de Bidgostia eo tempore notarium arcis acticata [5] . The last entry is dated on 28th May 1526 [6].

Between 1495 and 1526 the starosta's office in Wschowa remained in the hands of the members of the Górski family from the house of Łodziowie. They were the sons of the castellan of Ląd and starosta of Wschowa (since 1462) Wojciech Górski (d. 1494): Wojciech, Jan, Piotr and Maciej. The first two were clergymen. Wojciech (d. 1507), as pointed above, owned a benefice in the cathedral chapter of Włocławek, and was also the chancellor of the Poznań cathedral chapter. Jan (d. 1533) was the archdeacon and officialis in the cathedral chapter Poznań. Both were also secretaries of the royal chancellery. Piotr, who died between 1538 and 1540, became the castellan of Nakło in 1503. He also held the starosta's office in Człuchów (until 1508). The youngest, Maciej (died after 1540) did not hold any dignity [7].

In terms of contents, entries in the acta castrensia of Wschowa represent four main categories singled out by Bielecka for entries in Greater Poland records, pertaining to the old chancellery practice. In accordance with the terminology used at the time, she called them: resignationes, inscriptiones, relationes and decreta [8]. The first category encompasses legal actions connected with perpetual change in assets, including sale contracts, donations, dowry payments and dowry arrangements. According to Bielecka in this category there are also acts of sale subject to a right of repurchase . (the so-called wyderkaufy or wyderki) [9]. The inscriptiones category contains entries documenting bilateral temporary transactions, like various loans, securities, leases, and unilateral statements (e.g. renunciations of rights to sums of money). The category of relationes contains mostly statements of court ushers (e.g. about calling parties in trial, about carrying out or objecting intromissio), as well as testimonies of people appearing in the court, in both: contentious and non-contentious matters. The last category, decreta, contains entries documenting contentious proceedings before the starosta's court, including decisions about the adjournment of trials, verdicts and adjudicated fees for failing to appear at court.

At present, the oldest surviving acta castrensia from Wschowa are kept in the State Archives in Poznań under signature "Wschowa Gr. 1". It is a 194-sheet (388 pages) paper manuscript in folio format, the state of sheets can be called good. Only several first sheets of the register are scrappy on the edges, the first sheet being in the worst state. Relatively few sheets have small stains. The leather cover of the volume, most probably dating back to the 16th century (which can be demonstrated by its renaissance ornaments), is damaged, in many places leather is worn. There are also defects in the dorsal part and on the edges of the cover. In the middle of the front cover there is a sheet of paper, probably stuck in the 17th century, containing the title and (incorrect) date of the volume. Each sheet of the register has been numbered earlier (sheets 1-196v), but the numbers 88-88v and 164-164v are missing. The register was paginated before scanning, empty sheets were omitted (f. 88-88v, 120v, 144v, 164-164v, 181, 187v). According to Janina Bielecka, first 36 sheets are rough copies. In this part of the volume there is chronological disorder. Only at sheet 37r does the fair copy begin, with entries starting in 1502. Janina Bielecka also noted, that sheets containing entries from 1495 and 1496 could have been added to the register when it was being bound at the end of the 17th or in the 18th century, as remaining part of an earlier register [10]. However, there is an incorrect view and results from misreading of a gothic form of the numeral “5” in the date 1495 on the f. 1 as “7”. Moreover, the f. 1 is a title page, while on the f. 10, where entries from 1497 start from, there is no distinct heading informing about the date of a court session. But the clinching argument is that the entries from 1497 start from the middle of the quire II, so the sheets containing entries from previous year could not be added later.

The volume consists of 18 quires covering a different number of sheets – from 2+2 to 12+12 leaves, with thicker ones being placed in the second part of the volume. There are also loose sheets, inserted between the quires or between the leaves of one quire. The last quire is incomplete, missing the f. 197, which should be the second half of the f. 176, and in which the entry from the f. 196v should be completed. The current layout of the book is as follows:

Many folia were cut out of their quires and re-pasted, not always in correct place, as it is evidenced by discontinuities in the content of entries (no continuation between f. 8v-9, f. 18v-19, 82v-83, 115v-116). Uncompleted records except from one (the entry from f. 18v is completed on f. 33) have no continuation in the remainder of the volume. Folia 120-121 are about 1 cm smaller than the others. The f. 120 was sewn between quires and sheet 121 was stuck to it. The process of cutting out and re-pasting of the sheets and the process of repairing of damaged bifolia should be dated back probably to the 16th century, because the same kind of paper was used for writing the text of the volume and for pasting cut sheets. Fragments of filigrees can be seen on those pieces of paper sheets[11].

Analysis of watermarks also revealed a disorder in the layout of the quires. Normally, one watermark is apparent on a bifolium (as the bifolium is folded, the watermark is on one folium, the other folium is without mark). Quire X, 5+5, including f. 83-93 (there is no f. 88), consists of cut out and re-pasted sheets. Albeit 83-93 is a bifolium, two identical watermarks, depicting oxhead with curved horns, with a rod ending in Latin cross protruding from the top of its head, with a serpent twined around the rod. If the paper of this bifolium was produced in a mould, than the wires of the watermarks had to be pressed into the paper on one side and by folding it watermarks have to be seen impressed form one direction, but by examining bifolium 83-93, we can see, that the watermarks were pressed from opposite directions. Bifolia 86-90 and 87-89 do not contain any watermarks. Consequently these bifolia were gluted together by chance and were not produced as one sheet of paper on one mould. Interestingly, no discontinuity of records was observed within this quire, there is only no continuation between quires IX and X. This would mean that this could be the original form of this quire, demonstrating that the staff of the starosta’s court used some kind of waste paper, loose sheets and their halves to create quires of volumes.

On the sheets of the volume 96 filigrees were identified. Among them the most frequent symbol is a fauna motif, an oxhead, represented by 60 watermarks, which is more than 60%. There are many different version of this main symbol, but the most popular is an image of an oxhead with a rod ending in a Latin cross protruding from the top of its head, with a serpent twined around the rod. In the rest cards of the volume there are also 19 filigrees that depict a boar, 7 – with monogram W with a crown, 6 containing the image of a heraldic shield with an arrow (or a sword or a cross), 2 depict an image of an anthropomorphic figure with long hair on a heraldic shield, one –a three-leaf clover and one contains a crown with a diadem, a cross and a star.

Sheets in the entire register have crossings, corrections, notes on the margin of and inside the text, as well as crossing outs when an entry was annulled. Entries without a heading were usually later on given a title that informed the reader about the type of a given case.

The writing is usually legible. Fifteen different hands were identified. They are marked from A to O, and listed below.


Numbers of entries and their date

Number of entries



f1_1-f4v_4 (1495-1496); f5v_1-f11_1 (1496-1497); f11v_3-f14_1 (1497); f14v_2-f16_1 (1497-1498); f17_3-f18_3 ( 1498); f23_1 (1500); f34_1-f35v_3 (1499)



of Bydgoszczy


f5_1 (1496)



f112_2-f11v_2 (1497)



f14_2-f14v_1 (1497); f19_1-f22v_2 (1499-1500); f23v_1-f26_3 (1500-1501); f29_3-f29v_3 (1502); f31_1-f31v_2 ( 1500)



f16_2-f16v_3 (1498); f33v_2-f33v_4 (1499); f36_1-f36_3 (1499); f54v_1-f55_2 (1505); f79v_1 (1511)



f17_1-f17_2 (1498); f18v_1 (1498); f27v_2-f29_2 (1501); f33_1-f33_2 (1498); f36v_1 (1499)



f26v_1-f27v_1 (1501)



F29v_4-f30_2 (1502); f30_4-f30v_1 (1502)



f30_3 (1502); f32_1-32v_1 (1502); f37_1-f41v_3 (1502-1503); f42_2-f54_3 (1503-1505); f55v_1-f57_2 ( 1505-1506); f57v_1-f58_2 (1507)


Tobiasz Rogaliński


f33v_1 (1499)



f42_1 (1508); f59v_1-f79_3 (1507-1511)


Stefan Rudawski


f57_3 (1506)



f58_3-f59_1 (1507)



f80v_1-f82v_1 (1511-1512); f113_1-f116_1 (1517)



f82v_2-f112v_2 (1512-1517); f. 116_2- f195_1 (1518-1526)


The highest number of scribes appears in the first part of the register (k. 1-36v), encompassing entries from 1495-1502, where we found 10 different handwritings. Entries from the remaining period were made mostly by three scribes (I, K and O), of which two are known by name. These are Tobiasz Rogaliński (I) who worked between 1502 and 1507 [12] and Stefan Rudawski (K), between 1507 and 1511 [13]. We also know the name of one of scribes entering records in the first part of the register. This is Marcin of Bydgoszcz (A), who worked between 1507 and 1511 [14]. Other scribes unfortunately remain anonymous.

In the volume some errors in the dating of entries are found. Some of them could be explained by scribe’s mistake, resulting from mixing of Polish and Latin names of the days[15] and some of them were probably caused by inattention of a scribe, who made a fair copy of an entry, perhaps after a long time[16]. But those cases are few.

Text: Witold Brzeziński (Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz); Krisztina Rábai (University of Hradec Králové); Urszula Zachara-Związek (The Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw)

Comparison of handwritings: Joanna Karczewska (Zielona Góra University)

[1] J. Łosowski provides a synthetic presentation of the development and functioning of the castrensis chancellery, as well as the castrense iudicium and officium in Polish lands in late medieval and early modern period, see J. Łosowski, Akta sądów i urzędów szlacheckich w XIV-XVIII wieku, w: Dyplomatyka staropolska, red. T. Jurek, Warszawa 2015, s. 253-338; Kancelaria grodzka chełmska od XV do XVIII wieku. Studium o urzędzie, dokumentacji, jej formach i roli w życiu społeczeństwa staropolskiego , Lublin 2004, passim; here also list of earlier literature on the subject. Among them, the most important in terms of history and functioning of starosta's courts (iudicia castrensia) are works of A. Gąsiorowskiego, Urzędnicy zarządu lokalnego w późnośredniowiecznej Wielkopolsce, Poznań 1970; Tak zwane prawo wieczności w dawnej Polsce, „Czasopismo Prawno-Historyczne”, 22 (2), 1970, p. 31-58; Początki sądów grodzkich w średniowiecznej Polsce, „Czasopismo Prawno-Historyczne”, 26 (2), 1974, p. 57-79; Starostowie wielkopolskich miast królewskich w dobie jagiellońskiej, Warszawa-Poznań 1981. For the history of castrensia chancelleries in Grater Poland see mainly works of J. Bielecka Organizacja i działalność kancelarii ziemskich i grodzkich wielkopolskich XIV-XVIII w., „Archeion”, 22, 1954, p. 129-152; Kancelaria grodzka wielkopolska w XVI-XVIII wieku, „Studia Źródłoznawcze”, 1, 1957, p. 119-153 and the basic work Inwentarze ksiąg archiwów grodzkich i ziemskich Wielkopolski XIV-XVIII wieku. Województwo poznańskie, kaliskie, gnieźnieńskie, inowrocławskie , Poznań 1965. Abour court registers in the State Archives in Poznań see also Z. Wojciechowska, Księgi sądowe wielkopolskie w okresu I Rzeczypospolitej w zasobie Archiwum Państwowego w Poznaniu, „Poznański Rocznik Archiwalno-Historyczny”, 5, 1998, p. 11-32.

[2] A. Gąsiorowski, Początki sądów grodzkich, p. 68, 71.

[3] This inventory is Catalogus seu regestrum librorum resignationum, inscriptionum, iuditorium, relationum et aliarum recognitionum, written down in the acta castrensia of Wschowa 145 (State Archives in Poznań, Wschowa Gr. 145, f. 773-782), see J. Bielecka, Inwentarze ksiąg, p. 370, footnote 1).

[4] Entries about two earlier documents can also be found in the register. On sheets 104v-105 (p. 206-207, entry f104_1) there is a document registered issued by Kazimierz Jagiellończyk on 21th July 1459. The other document, dated 12th June 1422 was issued by Władysław Jagiełło and registered in an entry from 1526 (f195_1, text of the document on sheets 195-196 (p. 381-383).

[5] Entry f1_1.

[6] Entry f195_1.

[7] In the case of Wojciech and Jan only the most important offices are listed. About their brothers as starostas of Wschowa see A. Gąsiorowski, Starostowie wielkopolskich miast królewskich w dobie jagiellońskiej, Warszawa –Poznań 1981, p. 69 and about their father: W. Brzeziński, Krąg rodzinny kasztelana lędzkiego Wojciecha Górskiego herbu Łodzia († 1494), „Studia z Dziejów Średniowiecza”, 18, 2014.

[8] J. Bielecka, Inwentarze ksiąg, p. XIII-XV.

[9] Ibidem, p. XIV.

[10] Ibidem, p. 370, footnote 1.

[11] See e.g. f. 72, where on the strip of paper a fragment of a filigree depicting a snake coiling a cross is to be seen and f. 74, where on the strip of paper there is probably a fragment of an ox head.

[11] Mentioned in two entries: f37_1 and f40v_1.

[12] Mentioned on sheet 61 (p. 121).

[13] Mentioned in entry f1_1.

[15] See entry f_19_2, where a scribe wrote an action had been done on Wednesday (feria quarta), but it was Thursday in fact (czwartek – “the fourth day” in Polish); similarly in entry f_42_1 a scribe defined a day as a Tuesday (feria tercia), but he meant Wednesday (środa – “the middle day of a week” in Polish).

[16] See e.g. entry f_96v_1, where a scribe noted an action had been done in Saturday, but it was Friday; in entry f_125v_4 a scribe defined a day as “Thursday, a following day after the s. Bartholomew the Apostle day” (feria quinta in crastino s. Bartholomei), whose commemoration was not on Wednesday, but on Tuesday that year.

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